The Conceptual Approachment of Touristical Marketing

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The possibility of accommodating the marketing to all areas of human activity is unanimously accepted by specialists. One of the fundamental peculiarities of marketing, that characterizes the necessity, the importance and its dynamism, is constituted by universality. The adaptation of the marketing optic to the specific of the different domains of activity leaded to the acceleration of the process of specialization and implementation. A distinct social-economic phenomenon, a really important and with a great potential economic branch, as well as a clearly outlined science, both theoretically and practically, are represented by tourism. The inclusion of marketing in the touristical activity became a necessity as a consequence of the emphasis of the phenomenon of "touristification" of the planet, of the inclusion of tourism in the daily activities of the human being like a new modus vivendi., of the spectacular increase of the touristical offers in all geographical regions of the world, of its economic and social importance both in the national activities and at the level of the international economic relationships and of its role of stimulating the global economic system.
The touristical marketing represents an eloquent proof of the contemporary process of multiplying of the spheres of activity in which the science rapidly penetrates. The touristical marketing is the most convincing expression of the deepening of the specialization of marketing, of the delimitation and the particularization of the marketing politics, of the informational and of decision systems. As a consequence of the dynamism and its role in the socio-economic life, of the effects felt by the economical agents confronted with problems whose solution imposed their approach in a new vision, the conceptualization of marketing in tourism was realized long before the introduction of marketing in the sphere of services. Thus, the practical realities and the literature of specialty unequivocally proves the apparition and the development of the touristical marketing in the process of specialization. 
The firsts intents of specialization of the theory of the touristical marketing dates from the year 1965 in Spain, then in 1971 in Switzerland.
The touristical marketing is one of the components of marketing as a science, discipline, art or demarche and is particularized by the specific characteristics given, fundamentally, of the extremely complex character of the touristical product.
The expansion of tourism in the last decades was extremely accentuated, several attractive touristical destinations appeared on the touristic market, new countries and regions that joined the touristical circuit. The tourism as an economic and social phenomenon is strongly influenced by seasonality; is a well-known fact that at the pick of the touristical season the demand is accentuated, determining the so-called strangling phenomena in transports, housing, public alimentation and complimentary services.
The technical-scientific discoveries had an important role in the consolidation and the diversification of the touristic offer, through the construction of some receiving touristical structures with destination of housing, fun, restoration or in the improvement of the means of transport, in the modernization of the roads and international airports, etc.
Under these conditions, the massive development of tourism, its importance in economy, the creation of a diversified offer and the existence of the touristical seasonality, imposes the application of some modern research methods for the organization, the development and the promotion of the different forms of tourism, therefore, the use of the principles and of the methods of marketing in the activity of tourism as well. As a consequence, the penetration of the optic of marketing in the domain of tourism come to welcome the multiple preoccupations created by the development of tourism in general, of the necessity of getting to know the motivations of the touristical demand, of the general behavior of the consumer of touristical services and of discovering of new distribution possibilities in a permanently developing concurrence.
In order to define the concept of touristical marketing we need to follow some steps :
- the familiarization with the requests of the touristic market as a starting point of the touristical activity, that makes possible the familiarization with the exterior environment in which the unity of tourism will eventually deploy its activity. This process is a dynamic one because both the requests of the tourists and the touristic market rapidly evolve from one period to another;
- the prevision of marketing that appears as a preliminary necessity in the activity of touristical marketing. Through its concurrence the conditions in which the firm of tourism will continue to function get be known;
- the action the firm of tourism has upon the interior environment, the establishment of the decisions that the firm has to take in order to be able to offer what the touristic market expects to receive from it. 
The concept of marketing is based on : 
Knowledge ' Prevision ' Action
This can also be expressed through the necessity of getting to know in order to be able to anticipate and the necessity of anticipation in order to be able to action.
The prevision and the knowledge are activities that action in the exterior environment of the firm of tourism, and the action refers to the activity of the firm itself, to its interior environment that can be influence as it wants. In this respect the action is a conscious, objective and necessary process through which the touristical firm adapts its activity to the requests of its clients. 
Therefore, the concept of touristical marketing takes the form : 
Research ' Prevision ' Adaptation 
This can be put across through the research of the exterior environment in order to be able to detect its evolution and the accomplishment of the previsions in order to adapt the interior environment to the conditions of the exterior environment. 
We can't neglect the fact that the touristical firm has a motif, a purpose in this process of adaptation, namely the realization of a profitable economic activity.
We can therefore sustain that marketing is placed at the centre of the three defining activities, that is : request, offer and benefit.


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