Tariff Barriers

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Taxes levied on imports also sometime on exports
Who gains?
Governments
Local producers (at least on the short run)
Employees of the protected industries keep their jobs
Who loses?
Consumers who pay higher prices
The economy which remains inefficient
Employees of the protected industries who don't develop new skills
Following the object :
1. import tariffs
2. export tariffs
Following the collecting procedure:
1. ad valorem tariffs
2. specific tariffs
3. mixt or alternative tariffs
Following the setting procedure :
1. autonomus tariffs
2. standard tariffs
3. autonomo-conventional tariffs
4. assimilated tariffs
Following the aim :
1. protectionist - prohibitive - tariffs
2. preferential duties
3. retaliatory tariffs:
Antidumping duties
Countervailing duties
Definition: 
fixed monetary tax per physical unit of the good imported
Benefit: - ease of collection
Cost: 
tariff's effectiveness in protecting domestic industry falls as price of imported good rises 
Why? because tariff becomes a smaller and smaller portion of the total cost of the good as its price rises.


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