Boxer, breed of working dog, developed in Germany during the second half of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries from a number of breeds, principally the bulldog and terrier types. The ancestors of the breed were originally used for dogfighting and bull baiting; in later years, because of the courage, strength, and agility of the boxer, it was selected for police work in Germany and was used as a guide for the blind. Always faithful, intelligent, and alert, the boxer makes a splendid pet. Among its physical characteristics are a massive head; an undershot jaw; a muzzle with a characteristic black mask; ears that are rather long and set high; dark-brown eyes; a broad, black nose; a strong, round, and muscular neck; a deep chest; and well-muscled hindquarters. The dog has a short, glossy, smooth coat that is any of various shades of fawn or brindle in colour, sometimes with white markings. The male is from 56 to 61 cm (22 to 24 in) tall at the shoulders and weighs about 30 kg (66 lb); the female is from 53 to 58 cm (21 to 23 in) tall and weighs about 28 kg (62 lb). BULLDOG Bulldog, breed of dog, often used to represent the character of Britain and the British. It was developed in England in the 13th century for courage and ferocity needed in the sport of bull baiting. After bull baiting became illegal in 1835, the dog was selectively bred to eliminate viciousness. The bulldog has a heavy, thickset, low-slung body; a massive head; wide shoulders; short, stout, and straight forelegs; long hind legs; and a fine-textured coat of short, straight hair. It is also characterized by small, thin ears, located high on the head; a large, broad nose; and a deep, broad, and full chest. The lower jaw projects, enabling the dog to take a grip that is difficult to break. The tail is short, straight, or screw, but not curled, and is hung low. The colour of the dog may be red brindle, other brindles, or solid white. Mature male dogs weigh about 25 kg (55 lb); females, about 21 kg (45 lb). North American bulldogs are slightly lighter. German Shepherd Dog German Shepherd Dog, breed of working dog, which originated in northern Europe several centuries ago, hence their alternative (but unofficial) name Alsatian. The dogs were originally used to protect flocks of sheep and are still used for this purpose. More recently they have been trained to
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