Html Hyper Text Markup Language

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You might not believe it, but the Net s roots are in the 1960?s. The RAND Corporation, America s foremost Cold War thinking machine, faced a strategic problem. How could the US authorities successfully communicate after a nuclear attack? So scientists began to construct a network. This was the beginning of the internet. It was called ARPANET because the Pentagon s Advanced Research Projects Agencs (ARPA) had installed it.
In 1972 Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented the first e-mail program.
In 1983 the ARPANET split into ARPANET and the military segment, MILNET. The ARPANET kept growing during the early eighties. In 1984 the number of hosts broke 1000, in 1987 they broke 10, 000 and in 1989 the even broke 100, 000. In 1992 the World Wide Web (WWW) was released and the number of hosts broke 1, 000, 000. The WWW was invented at CERN, an institute for particle physics situated in Switzerland. Originally, WWW was developed only for high energy physics.
Tim Berners Lee was the driving force behind the development. He wrote the first WWW client and the first WWW server and defined standards such as URL, HTML and HTTP while working at CERN.
Before HTML there were thousands of word processing programs out on the market. Each of it encoded text in a different way when it saved data to a disk. This made it impossible to create a single text file that could be viewed by every operating system. So it was necessary to define a standard.
This standard is the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). HTML is a sub-language of the SGML just as VRML and XML. Note that HTML in not a programming language! It only describes formatting and hypertext links, and it defines different components of a document.
Who made the HTML?
Who can make a standard like the SGML or the HTML for the internet?
The internet is very neutral. That means that there is no matter what country you live in, what language you speak or what operating system you are running. The internet isnt anchored to any specific nation. No government can define a standard for all nations on earth. Thousands of corporations are developing technology for the internet. Giving such power to any one company would raise serious legal concerns about monopolisation and unfair business practices. Only an organisation that is not tied by any one government or business can make such standard.
The World Wide Web Consotium (W3C) is such an organisation. Founded in 1994 and hosted in the United States, in Europe and in Asia, this organisation is charged with developing and publishing standards for the World Wide Web.
These standards are not laws. They are guidelines for web-designers to make their products compatible with all systems of potential customers.
Are there different versions of HTML?
So far there are six different versions of HTML: HTML 1. 0 First Tim Berners-Lee wrote HTML 1. 0 with its own Browser in 1990. Over the next couple of months, several other web-browsers began to ...


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